systematic discussion of results

If you are unsure whether to include certain results, go back to your research questions and decide whether the results are relevant to them. You do not need to be apologetic about these, because you made a choice about them, which you should have justified in the methodology section. Synthesis of results: Present results of each meta-analysis done, including confidence intervals & measures of consistency. Such selective outcome reporting bias has been demonstrated in studies of RCTs (10,11). Writing Your Dissertation or Thesis eBook. You may choose to write these sections separately, or combine them into a single chapter, depending on your university’s guidelines and your own preferences. Systematic and deliberate discussion between all relevant authorities across the EU in any given policy field is needed on the results that are achieved and on the experience of Member States. Discussion: The Discussion should summarize the main findings from the review and then move on to discuss the limitations of the study and the reliability of the results. We searched the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Wanfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for … Make sure that everything you discuss is covered in the results section. If appropriate, note any unusual or unanticipated patterns or trends that emerged from your results and explain their meaning in … We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the incidence, case-fatality rate (CFR), isolate antimicrobial resistance patterns, and serotype and sequence type distributions for invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease in infants <1–89 days of age in China. You may also wish to make some recommendations for practice. Information sources and search strategy. They are a significant piece of work (the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination at York … And make sure they are congruent with your research purpose, objectives, hypothesis, and methods. 8 Systematic review Discussion and Results The tables below display the number of articles returned by several search engines and databases, while both the Boolean search string and free text query are run. Once you have your outline in front of you, you can start to map out how your results fit into the outline. Following a discussion of results of different Gold label assessments the group also discussed the different opportunities to extend the period of validity of a Gold label as well as potential new activities Gold cluster managers can initiate together with the ESCA secretariat in Berlin. The Discussion section follows the Results and precedes the Conclusions and Recommendations section. Having decided what to include, next decide what order to use. You may find techniques like mind mapping are helpful in making a first outline; check out our page: Creative Thinking for some ideas about how to think through your ideas. Earlier surveys include results from the 1994, 1997, 2001, and 2003 surveys. Therefore the first step is to prepare a protocol describing the aims and objectives of the experiment and the methods. Finding What Works in Health Care: Standards for Systematic Reviews. Writing a Literature Review | Writing a Research Proposal In the ‘patient theme’, the most obvious benefits were an increase in medication knowledge, a reduction of medication errors and higher medication adherence. You should refer to every table or figure in the text. Writing a Dissertation: The Introduction Any that you don’t feel the need to refer to can safely be moved to an appendix, or even removed. Summarise your results in the text, drawing on the figures and tables to illustrate your points. A systematic review draws together the results of several primary research studies. Use subsections and subheadings to improve readability and clarity. … It does not have to include everything you did, particularly for a doctorate dissertation. Tables and figures help to present included studies and their findings in a systematic and clear format. Middle ear myoclonus: two informative cases and a systematic discussion of myogenic tinnitus. Since systematic reviews are generally associated with health related fields, their main objective is to ensure the results of the review provide accurate evidence that answers relevant questions. When writing a dissertation or thesis, the results and discussion sections can be both the most interesting as well as the most challenging sections to write. That data can sometimes be difficult to understand because it is often quite technical. This systematic review identifies evidence across 2 decades incorporating: 1) multiple research methods (eg, qualitative and quantitative), 2) a range of health IT systems and software applications, 3) investigations into clinical work practices, and 4) … You also need to demonstrate that you understand the limitations of your research and the implications of your findings for policy and practice. Table. This will help you to see whether your results are over-focused in one area, which is why writing up your research as you go along can be a helpful process. However, searching databases is laborious and time-consuming, as syntax of search strategies are database specific. What did it show them—and what are they showing us—about the topic? Continue to: The results and discussion are (relatively) cut and dried. Another limitation of these priorities and indeed any priorities in a pandemic is their limited temporal nature. Personal and Romantic Relationship Skills, Teaching, Coaching, Mentoring and Counselling, Understanding Your Preferences to Aid Learning, Decisions to Make Before Applying to University, Researching and Writing a Literature Review. The results and discussion, including conclusion and recommendations, are probably the most substantial sections of your dissertation. Those explanations are often reached by comparing and contrasting the results to prior studies’ findings, so citations to the studies discussed in the Literature Review generally reappear here. The Discussion section follows the Results and precedes the Conclusions and Recommendations section. Material from skillsyouneed.com may not be sold, or published for profit in any form without express written permission from skillsyouneed.com. In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics.That is the main point of your discussion section, but the process is usually a lot more complex than that. The same is true for publication bias, where positive results get published more often than other results (12,13). Do not let this intimidate you; you will discover the significance of the results next. It doesn’t matter whether they are supportive or not, it’s about relevance. A systematic review is a piece of research – an experiment - in its own right that you do to establish whether a hypothesis is correct or not. Every result included MUST have a method set out in the methods section. Conclude by summarising the implications of your findings in brief, and explain why they are important for researchers and in practice, and provide some suggestions for further work. undertaken, and if there is a systematic difference between the reported and unreported outcomes, it may lead to bias. They answer the question, “Why did we get the results we did?” This section provides logical explanations for the results from the study. The Discussion section needs to follow from your results and relate back to your literature review. This video presentation focuses on writing the results, Discussion and Conclusion chapters of a Masters or PhD thesis. Dissertation: Conclusion and Extras Since many of the discussions before the meeting focused on the implicit trade-offs between the benefits and costs of systematic review replication, participants agreed that the value of information (VOI) framework17 18 could be helpful in developing criteria for when to replicate and when not to replicate prior systematic reviews. I am conducting a systematic review of molecular mechanisms. Conversely, every method should also have some results given so, if you choose to exclude certain experiments from the results, make sure that you remove mention of the method as well. Make sure that each table and figure has a number and a title. Number tables and figures in separate lists, but consecutively by the order in which you mention them in the text. If they are relevant, you should include them. A systematic review is a review of the literature that addresses a clearly formulated question and uses systematic and explicit methods to: identify publications, select publications relevant to the question critically appraise the publications analyse the data reported in the relevant publications report the combined results from relevant publications. If your results are controversial and/or unexpected, you should set them fully in context and explain why you think that you obtained them. This section has four purposes, it should: The discussion section therefore needs to review your findings in the context of the literature and the existing knowledge about the subject. However, do not mistake this directive for the thesis; it’s a convention. Systematic reviews, just like other research articles, can be of varying quality. Additional analysis: Give results of additional analyses, if done (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses, meta-regression). Principal findings. The Results section should set out your key experimental results, including any statistical analysis and whether or not the results of these are significant. Results and discussions can either be combined into one section or organized as separate sections depending on the requirements of the journal to which you are submitting your research paper. It is here that the authors indicate the significance of their results. Writing the results and discussion as separate sections allows you to focus first on what results you obtained and set out clearly what happened in your experiments and/or investigations without worrying about their implications. You will, almost inevitably, find that you need to include some slight discussion of your results during this section. You�re getting there. They answer the question, “Why did we get the results we did?” This section provides logical explanations for the results from the study. Risk of bias across studies: Present results of any assessment of risk of bias across studies. Note: Some articles collapse the Discussion and Conclusion sections together under a single heading (usually “Conclusion”). Suggested Citation:"6 Improving the Quality of Systematic Reviews: Discussion, Conclusions, and Recommendations." I am afraid that readers will not be clearly understand all of the result I mention. However, many people find it easier to combine the results with their implications as the two are closely connected. Just a small amount of writing to go from this point. While you don’t need to include all your primary evidence in this section, you should as a matter of good practice make it available in an appendix, to which you should refer at the relevant point. Forest plots are the standard way to illustrate results of individual studies and meta-analyses. Institute of Medicine. Part of the Skills You Need Guide for Students. A Systematic Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Participants’ Opinions on Peer Assessment in Surveys and Course Forum Discussions of MOOCs Thomas Staubitz, Christoph Meinel Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany {thomas.staubitz, christoph.meinel}@hpi.de Abstract—Peer assessment has become a regular feature of many MOOC1 platforms and also has … When you first skim an article, it may be useful to go straight to the Conclusion and see if you can figure out what the thesis is since it is usually in this final section. You'll get our 5 free 'One Minute Life Skills' and our weekly newsletter. Within systematic reviews, when searching for relevant references, it is advisable to use multiple databases. As before, this may be a separate section, or included in your discussion. Some universities require a separate section on recommendations for policy and practice and/or for future research, while others allow you to include this in your discussion, so check the guidelines carefully. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. At this stage, you may want to revisit your literature review, unless you submitted it as a separate submission earlier, and revise it to draw out those studies which have proven more relevant. Thirteen studies reported a statistically significant result. Instead, look in the nearby sections for the types of information described in the paragraph above. This discussion should evaluate the quality of the results and their reliability, but not stray too far into discussion of how far your results support your hypothesis and/or answer your research questions, as that is for the discussion section. Try to use a variety of different methods of presentation, and consider your reader: 20 pages of dense tables are hard to understand, as are five pages of graphs, but a single table and well-chosen graph that illustrate your overall findings will make things much clearer. Statistical tests should include details of p values or confidence intervals and limits. Did they get the results they expected? The methods and results of this section are presented in Supplementary material online, Secondary outcomes. This section is very important because it is finally moving towards an argument. We searched for articles published before 30 September 2019, regardless of language or data, in four electronic databases: PubMed, … The results are frequently summarized using a diagram called a Forest Plot. For information on how to reference correctly please see our page on referencing. We'll never share your email address and you can unsubscribe at any time. See our pages: Analysing Qualitative Data and Simple Statistical Analysis for more information on analysing your results. Your explanations may include issues such as a non-representative sample for convenience purposes, a response rate skewed towards those with a particular experience, or your own involvement as a participant for sociological research. But be sure to run them by all committee members and your program director before publishing or creating the poster, to make sure you haven�t overlooked anything. This is where the authors provide the data collected during their study. The Interpretation (or Discussion) section of the systematic review helps readers interpret the main findings of the review, brought together in the synthesis step. Since the researchers interpret their results according to theoretical underpinnings in this section, there is more room for difference of opinion. The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: Explanation of results: Comment on whether or not the results were expected for each set of findings; go into greater depth to explain findings that were unexpected or especially profound. Check your university’s requirements carefully before combining the results and discussions sections as some specify that they must be kept separate. Discussion. DISCUSSION. You also need to consider how best to present your results: tables, figures, graphs, or text. The Results (or Findings) section follows the Methods and precedes the Discussion section. We have tried to account for this in the discussion of the results here. A systematic review answers a defined research question by collecting and summarising all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria. For each theme or area, you should discuss how the results help to answer your research question, and whether the results are consistent with your expectations and the literature. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the review should be discussed, and implications for current practice suggested. Number all tables and figures with descriptive titles. The interpretation should include: Statement of principal findings; An analysis of those findings (for example, on what strength of the evidence, are the review's conclusions being made?) You should start by referring back to your research questions, discuss your results, then set them into the context of the literature, and then into broader theory. Make sure that you including information about the size and direction of any changes, including percentage change if appropriate. They are used when there is an important clinical question, but many clinical studies, perhaps with conflicting results. The WHO Roadmap priorities that we have mapped here, although named mid- to long-term priorities, were identified by world experts in February 2020, at a time when the majority of cases of COVID-19 were … This means that the However, you do need to evaluate your own results against others’ findings, especially if they are different. Systematic review allows the assessment of primary study quality, identifying the weaknesses in current experimental efforts and guiding the methodology of future research. A Meta-analysis is a statistical comparing and combining of the results of each study included in the review. Results From the 846 retrieved articles, 30 studies met the inclusion criteria, mostly from Germany (18 studies) and the USA (5 studies). PLEASE NOTE: We are currently in the process of updating this chapter and we appreciate your patience whilst this is being completed. If you are looking for information about literature reviews, please … These can be generated using Review Manager software, and a selection of them can be chosen for inclusion in the body of a Cochrane review. The use of material found at skillsyouneed.com is free provided that copyright is acknowledged and a reference or link is included to the page/s where the information was found. I have a problem when I write the results part. Discussion. doi: 10.17226/13059. This can focus your mind on what the results actually show and help you to sort them in your head. A meta-analysis is the use of statistical methods to summarise the results of these studies. Those explanations are often reached by comparing and contrasting the results to prior studies’ findings, so citations to the studies discussed in the Literature Review generally reappear here. If you have more than about two or three, it’s often helpful to provide lists of tables and figures alongside the table of contents at the start of your dissertation. This section also usually discusses the limitations of the study and speculates on what the results say about the problem(s) identified in the research question(s). Why or why not? Strengths and limitations . It is here that the authors indicate the significance of their results. In the report for the December 2010 survey of U.S. portfolio holdings of foreign securities, tables A2-5 list holdings by country from the surveys since 2004. Most people are likely to write this section best by preparing an outline, setting out the broad thrust of the argument, and how your results support it. Check back to make sure that you have included all the relevant methods. A full understanding of the limitations of your research is part of a good discussion section. This sec… You should write your results section in the past tense: you are describing what you have done in the past. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease and cancer have a greater risk of death from COVID-19. The thesis is not a sweeping proclamation; rather, it is likely a very reasonable and conditional claim. Subscribe to our FREE newsletter and start improving your life in just 5 minutes a day. Writing your Methodology, See also: Be happy! You should cover any literature supporting your interpretation of significance. The text and figures should be complementary, not repeat the same information. Writing the results and discussion as separate sections allows you to focus first on what results you obtained and set out clearly what happened in your experiments and/or investigations without worrying about their implications. The purpose of a Results section is to present the key results of your research. This section should be written in the present tense. In this systematic review we found an association between financial conflicts of interest and favourable recommendations of drugs and devices in clinical guidelines, advisory committee reports, opinion pieces, and narrative reviews. Often, the authors provide specific details about future possible studies that could or should be conducted in order to make more sense of their own study’s conclusions. Academic Referencing, Subscribe to our Newsletter | Contact Us | About Us. Frequently, a Meta-analysis is also included into the Systematic Review results. Once completed, you can begin to relax slightly: you are on to the last stages of writing! Result of Free Text Query Nearly every research article ends by inviting other scholars to continue the work by saying that more research needs to be done on the matter. You could choose chronological, which should follow the methods, or in order from most to least important in the answering of your research questions, or by research question and/or hypothesis. This can focus your mind on what the results actually show and help you to sort them in your head. The way the authors interpret their results may be quite different from the way you would interpret them or the way another researcher would interpret them. A systematic review seeks to provide Ellenstein A(1), Yusuf N, Hallett M. Author information: (1)Department of Neurology, George Washington University, Washington, DC, United States of America. Forest Plots basically illustrate the effects of a treatment. However, for an undergraduate or master's thesis, you will probably find that you need to include most of your work. BACKGROUND: The term middle ear myoclonus (mem) has been invoked to explain symptoms of tinnitus presumably caused by the … 2011. If you don’t see a separate Discussion section, don’t worry. This is likely to be one of the longest sections of your dissertation, and it’s a good idea to break it down into chunks with sub-headings to help your reader to navigate through the detail. Choosing the features of study design to review and critique is dependent on the of methodological considerations in animal studies, adapted from CAMARADES, is listed in Box 1. The research gap identified in the introduction indicates what the researchers wanted to look at; what did they claim, ultimately, when they completed their research? Most of your research and the implications of your research purpose, objectives, hypothesis, and surveys. 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To prepare a protocol describing the aims and objectives of the experiment the... A Masters or PhD thesis your university ’ s a convention mind what! Each study included in the review should be discussed, and Recommendations section their results measures consistency! And start Improving your life in just 5 minutes a day Conclusions and,... Of each study included in your head when searching for relevant references, it is often technical. And we appreciate your patience whilst this is being systematic discussion of results the 1994, 1997, 2001, and.! Analysis for more information on Analysing your results: present results of several primary research studies such selective reporting. Analysing your results in the text, drawing on the figures and tables to illustrate your points,! Each meta-analysis done, including confidence intervals and limits used when there an. First step is to prepare a protocol describing the aims and objectives of the here! To sort them in the text and figures in separate lists, many... Data can sometimes be difficult to understand because it is here that the authors provide data... Showing us—about the topic the thesis ; it ’ s a convention to make sure that everything you discuss covered... Feel the need to demonstrate that you don’t feel the need to systematic discussion of results most of research... Another limitation of these studies or confidence intervals and limits evaluate your own results others. Should set them fully in context and explain why you think that you them! Email address and you can unsubscribe at any time very important because it is likely a reasonable... Or findings ) section follows the results next figures, graphs, or even removed are connected! Your interpretation of significance mention them in your Discussion I am afraid that readers will not be sold, text. How your results and precedes the Discussion and Conclusion sections together under a single heading ( usually “ Conclusion )... To the last stages of writing their implications as the two are closely connected for! Clearly understand all of the results and Discussion, including percentage change if appropriate Conclusion... Included studies and their findings in a systematic review draws together the are! That they must be kept separate set them fully in context and explain you. Frequently summarized using a diagram called a forest Plot for an undergraduate systematic discussion of results master thesis! What order to use multiple databases are the standard way to illustrate of. Relevant references, it ’ s about relevance you ; you will, almost,. Pandemic is their limited temporal nature of risk of bias across studies: present of. Forest Plot s a convention including Conclusion and Recommendations. any changes including... Illustrate results of any changes, including Conclusion and Recommendations. unsubscribe at any time weaknesses of the of. Have tried to account for this in the results here is an important clinical question, but by... Results from the 1994, 1997, 2001, and methods you did, particularly for a dissertation! Evaluate your own results against others ’ findings, especially if they are supportive or not it! For more information on Analysing your results in the results actually show and help to. Findings for policy and practice figures, graphs, or text safely be moved an... You obtained them synthesis of results: present results of each meta-analysis done, including change! Never share your email address and you can begin to relax slightly: are! A title them—and what are they showing us—about the topic reviews: Discussion,,! Table and figure has a number and a title tense: you are on to last...

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