notre dame folk choir wikipedia

The University of Notre Dame Folk Choir I’m ready to support Folk Choir on October 26, 2020 during Notre Dame Day 2020. YouTube The title Magister Perotinus means that he was licensed to teach. 3.9K likes. Waddell's a cappella choral piece “Rosa Mystica”, sung by the University of Notre Dame Folk Choir, is featured in the final scene of the film “Lady Bird”. The Notre Dame Folk Choir serves Notre Dame as one of the principal liturgical choirs, singing every Sunday during the academic year in the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. It is also the beginning of the idea of composers and compositions, the introduction of more than two voices and the treatment of vernacular texts. In his treatise, he defines three forms of polyphony, organum in speciali, copula, and discant, which are defined by the relationship of the voices to each other and by the rhythmic flow of each voice. However "Petrus" was one of the most common names in the Ile de France during the High Middle Ages, making further identification difficult. In 1993, the Folk Choir was invited to sing for the concluding Papal Liturgy of His Holiness John Paul II during World Youth Day in Denver, and also began taking shorter, more condensed mini-tours during breaks during the academic year. The choir’s most recent international tour was to Ireland and Scotland in May of 2016. Listen to music by Notre Dame Folk Choir on Apple Music. Linus Nviiri, CSC, PhD Candidate in Theology - University of Notre Dame. Our musical offerings have been gathered from numerous cultural traditions and special emphasis is placed on contemporary music. Clermot-Ferrand Cathedral, or at greater length the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption of Clermont-Ferrand (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame-de-l'Assomption de Clermont-Ferrand), is a Gothic cathedral and French national monument located in the town of Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne.It is the seat of the Archbishops of Clermont (bishops until 2002). Today, the choir includes more than four dozen voices along with flute, organ, violins, viola, guitar, Celtic harp, cello, and bodhrán (Irish drum). The University of Notre Dame Folk Choir. Following the example of Blessed Basil Moreau, the choir aims to unify the hearts and minds of both our members and the congregations we serve through our song. The Notre Dame Folk Choir serves Notre Dame as one of the principal liturgical choirs, singing every Sunday during the academic year in the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. - Fr. [61][62], Modern transcription of passage showing use of fourths (blue:unison, red:third, black:fourth, magenta:fifth), Pérotin's name is recorded in many variants, including, Johannes de Garland was long thought to be the author, but is more likely to have been the editor of an existing manuscript. Overseas tours have brought the music of the Folk Choir to parishes rich and poor, from the cathedrals and churches of Canterbury, Edinburgh, and Galway, to the flats and tenements of Boha Mor and Ballymon. 1220), or at least a terminus ante quem. [r][30] The bishop's edicts are quite specific, and suggest that Pérotin's organum quadruplum Viderunt omnes was written for Christmas 1198, and his other organum quadruplum Sederunt Principes was composed for Saint Stephen's Day 1199, for the dedication of a new wing of the Notre Dame Cathedral. [18] The former include the three-part conductus Salvator hodie. Pérotin shortened these passages, while adding further voice parts to enrich the harmony. The Notre Dame Folk Choir has 299 photos and videos on their Instagram profile. This was so even since the time of Leo, because two ligated notes were put for the durational value of a brevis longa, and in a similar manner, three ligated notes were quite often used for a longa brevis, longa. At one stage Anonymous IV was thought to be a pupil of Johannes de Garlandia, but this is unlikely, For instance the elaborate reconstruction of his career by, Folio 8 of illuminated ms. I-Fl MS Pluteus 29.1 (F), a major source for the, The bishop's letters attest to the development of, It cannot be ascertained with certainty that Pérotin's works were not written before the episcopal edict, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFRoesner2001 (, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, "Three Centuries of French Mediæval Music: New Conclusions and Some Notes", "L'organum aux xiie et xiiie siècles: le discours musical comme stratégie de communication ou la légitimation implicite de l'autorité épiscopale", Bulletin of the American Musicological Society, Journal of the American Musicological Society, "Reich's Proverb In Dialogue with Medieval Masters", "Storia della musica medioevale e rinascimentale", "GB-Lbl Egerton 2615: Motets, in an Office for the Feast of the Circumsion; Hymns, Miracle play on the history of Daniel (ff. The Notre Dame Folk Choir is made up of sixty vocalists and musicians from all levels and disciplines at the university. In Paris polyphony was being performed in the late 1190s but later sources imply that some of the compositions date back as far as the 1160s. [16] Léonin's added duplum required skill, and had to be sung fast with up to 40 notes to one of the underlying chant, as a result of which the actual text progressed very slowly. [1][15] Of the several people with that name (Petrus) that have been suggested, the commonest are Petrus Cantor (died 1197), who was a theologian, and another Petrus who was Succentor at Notre Dame ca. [45] Johannes de Garlandia states that the Magnus Liber commences with Perotin's four-part organa, and makes specific reference to the notation in the three-part Alleluya, Posui adiutorium. In all ministries, the Folk Choir seeks to provide reverent, joyful liturgical music which enhances the congregation’s experience of prayer, inviting those gathered to experience the tender love and companionship of God. The choir traveled to Ireland for the first time in 1988, and has since returned to offer concerts and workshops every few years. The Notre Dame Folk Choir, a liturgical choir with 60 members from within the community, gathers behind the Basilica, where they perform every Sunday at 11:45 Mass. The Notre Dame Folk Choir began singing in the late 1970's, during a time of great changes in the Catholic liturgy. Alumni. Publications. However there was evidence of musical creativity there from the early twelfth century. [1], The reign of Louis VII (1137–1180) witnessed a period of cultural innovation, in which appeared the Notre Dame school of musical composition, and the contributions of Léonin, who prepared two-part choral settings (organa) for all the major liturgical festivals. c. 1200) was a composer from around the late 12th century, associated with the Notre Dame school of polyphony in Paris and the ars antiqua musical style. [i] The Magnus liber also contains the work of his successors. The choir works to bridge the gap between contemporary compositions of a post-Vatican II church community and the rich expression of traditional choral repertoire. Chrysogonus Waddell, O.C.S.O., former choirmaster of the Abbey of Gethsemani in Kentucky. [30] Despite this, we know nothing of how these works came about. An alternative rendering of abbreviavit is to write down, suggesting that he actually prepared a new edition using his better developed system of rhythmic notation, including mensural notation, as mentioned by Anonymous IV. Background. [22] Anonymous IV called him Magister Perotinus (Pérotinus the Master). Members of the choir come from a variety of academic disciplines, but are brought together by a shared love of music. The choir sings weekly during the academic year at the 11:45 A.M. liturgy in the Basilica of the Sacred Heart on Notre Dame’s campus. The chant was called the tenor (cantus firmus or vox principalis),[27] which literally “holds” (Latin: tenere) the melody. It is assumed that Perotinus was French and named Pérotin, a diminutive of Peter, but attempts to match him with persons in contemporary documents remain speculative. The Notre Dame Folk Choir is made up of sixty vocalists and musicians from all levels and disciplines at the university. Instagram. University of Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame Folk Choir Due to the social isolation orders that led to the postponement of all performances, the Notre Dame Folk Choir has decided to release its newest album … [17], Léonin compiled his compositions into a book, the Magnus liber organi (Great Organum Book), around 1160. The Notre Dame Folk Choir was founded by Steve in 1980. The former was more typical of Léonin, the latter of Pérotin, though this indirect attribution has been challenged. [16][20][21], Pérotin was one of very few composers of his day whose name has been preserved, and can be reliably attached to individual compositions, most of which have been transcribed. [16], Key: Anonymous IV (A), Johannes de Garlandia (G), Tischler (Ti), Thurston (Th), Husmann (H). [16] Another innovation was the standardization of note forms, and Léonin's new square notes were quickly adopted. For the first time, rhythm became as important as pitch, to the extent that the music of this era came to be known as musica mensurabilis (music that can be measured). The Notre Dame repertory spread throughout Europe. [17], Léonin's work was distinguished by two distinctive organum styles, purum and discantus. [27] The tenor is based on an existing plainsong melody from the liturgical repertoire (such as the Alleluia, Verse or Gradual, from the Mass, or a Responsory or Benedicamus from the Office). The only information on his life with any degree of certainty comes from late 13th century writers, including an English student known as Anonymous IV who names seven titles from a Magnus Liber (including Viderunt omnes, Sederunt principes and Alleluia Nativitas) that have been identified with surviving works. [n][5] Other works are attributed to him by later scholars, such as Heinrich Husmann, on stylistic grounds,[46] all in the organum style, as well as the two-voice Dum sigillum summi Patris and the monophonic Beata viscera[o][p] in the conductus style. folk@nd.edu These developments and the notation that evolved laid the foundations of musical practice for centuries. [25] The innovative nature of the Notre Dame style stands in contrast to its predecessor, that of the Abbey of St Martial, Limoges, replacing the monodic (monophonic) Gregorian chant with polyphony (more than one voice singing at a time). [17] He also made three-voice conductus, such as Salvatoris hodie, and two-voice conductus, such as Dum sigillum summi Patris, and also, among many others, monophonic conductus, such as Beata viscera etc. [s] If written after this, they could not have been written till late 1200 or 1201, since for most of 1200 France lay under an interdict of Pope Innocent III which suppressed the celebration of church services. Starting in the 1980s, the Notre Dame Folk Choir began to tour as part of its regular ministry. Members of the choir come from a variety of academic disciplines, but are brought together by a shared love of music. Although often linked to the construction of the cathedral itself, construction commenced in 1163 and the altar consecrated in 1182. However, only Anonymous IV employed the superlative Perotinus Magnus (Perotinus the Great). The Notre-Dame school or the Notre-Dame school of polyphony refers to the group of composers working at or near the Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris from about 1160 to 1250, along with the music they produced.. Nevertheless, two of the only three known four-part organa can be attributed to him. [18] The dates of Pérotin's life and works have long been a subject of debate,[19] but are generally thought to be from about 1155/60 (or earlier) to around 1200/05 (or later), based on the evolution of French choral writing during this time (see Works), in particular, his apparent absence from the flowering of the French motet that occurred after 1210. Open to all Notre Dame, St. Mary’s, and Holy Cross students. This year, from May 21 through June 3, 2018, the choir will tour through the state of Texas. By tradition, the four-part pieces of the Notre Dame school have been attributed to Pérotin, leaving the two-part pieces to Léonin. [26] This school also marked a transition from music that was essentially performance to a less ephemeral entity that was committed to parchment, preserved and transmitted to history. [17], Louis VII was succeeded by his son Philip II in 1179 and his reign was marked by integration and revision of the cultural shifts that had transpired under his father. (Credit: Notre Dame Folk Choir.) This is consistent with Anonymous IV's description of him as optimus discantor. [30] The surviving sources all commence with a four-voice organal setting of the Christmas Gradual, Viderunt omnes,[j] believed to be Pérotin's, as most likely did the original Liber. The discant style has the tenor moving in measured notes, but still more slowly than the upper voices. The third style has all voices moving note on note, and is largely limited to conductus. Organum at its roots involves simple doubling (organum duplum or organum purum) of a chant at intervals of a fourth or fifth, above or below. Many of the pieces in our repertoire have been arranged by the choir’s directors and a variety of other composers active in the field of sacred music—most notably, Rev. Pérotin's works are preserved in this compilation of early polyphonic church music, which was in the collection of the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris. [60], Pérotin has been described as the first modern composer in the Western tradition, radically transforming the work of his predecessors from a largely improvisatory technique to a distinct musical architecture. 1207–1238. If you search YouTube for the Notre Dame Folk Choir promotional video, you'll hear our director, Steven Warner, describe being with the Folk Choir as “being in a bag full of puppies.”As a freshman three years ago, I walked into 329 CoMo (Coleman-Morse Center) timidly and suddenly was in that bag. Pérotin[a] (fl. Their members come from a … [11] Associated with the Notre Dame school, was Johannes de Garlandia, whose De mensurabili provided a theoretical basis, for Notre Dame polyphony is essentially musica mensurabilis, music that is measured in time. [40] Pérotin also furthered the development of musical notation, moving it further from improvisation. [37], Pérotin composed music to at least five of the poems of the Chancellor of the cathedral, Philippe le Chancelier (Philip the Chancellor). [24] This period in musical history has been described as a paradigm shift of lasting consequence in musical notation and rhythmic composition, with the development of the organum, clausula, conductus and motet. Through participation in the choir, members offer themselves as gifts to one another, and to the congregations for whom they sing. [27][44], Anonymous IV mentions a number of compositions which he attributes to Pérotin,[1] including the four-voice Viderunt omnes and Sederunt principes, and the three-voice Alleluia "Posui adiutorium" and Alleluia "Nativitas". Its walls and interior vaulted ceiling are of stone; its roof and flèche (spire) were of wood (much of it 13th-century oak), sheathed in lead to exclude water. While the choir is primarily an undergraduate organization, we also welcome both graduate students and professional members of the Notre Dame community. Usually translated as abbreviate, it has been surmised that he shortened the Magnus liber by replacing organum purum with discant clausulae or simply replacing existing clausulae with shorter ones. In addition, they lend their talents to dedication services, vespers, memorial liturgies, penance services, weddings, ordinations, and a host of other worship celebrations which form a vital part of the fabric of worship on campus. [1] Other authors have attributed all the three-part organa in the Magnus Liber to Pérotin, which is unlikely. They share their vocal and instrumental gifts, as well as their individual personalities, to create a life-giving, supportive family. The choir serves the University of Notre Dame as one of its principal liturgical choirs, singing every Sunday during the academic year at the 11:45 A.M. liturgy. This quotation of plainchant melody is a defining characteristic of thirteenth century musical genres. Learn more about Folk Choir and all the other areas participating in #NDday. The title Magnus was a mark of the esteem in which he was held, even long after his death. [41] The degree to which he did this has been debated due to the phrase abbreviavit eundem by Anonymous IV. Here the upper voices move in discant, as rhythmic counterpoint above the sustained tenor notes. Find top songs and albums by Notre Dame Folk Choir including Immaculate Mary, Be Still, and Know That I Am God and more. Notre Dame Choral Auditions 2020. c. 1200) was a composer from around the late 12th century, associated with the Notre Dame school of polyphony in Paris and the ars antiqua musical style.. Waddell published five books, more than 175 articles, and many introductions to the works of medieval Cistercian writers. With the advent of the 1980's, the Choir moved far beyond the conventional definition of a "folk group". [1] The only definitive information on his life comes from a brief mention attributed to the musical theorist Johannes de Garlandia[b][c] (fl.c.1270–1320) in his De Mensurabili Musica,[3][4][5] and four references[6] in the works of an English student, known today as Anonymous IV,[d][8][9] including this, most commonly cited paragraph;[10], These rules were used in many older books; this was so during and after the time of Perotinus the Great. About the Artist Steven Warner has been directing the University of Notre Dame Folk Choir for the last twenty years and is also the director of Campus Ministry at Notre Dame University in South Bend, Indiana. The internationally recognized "Notre Dame Folk Choir" was founded by Steven "Cookie" Warner in 1980. [57], Anonymous IV identified seven works, that he presumably considered worthy of singling out, and these represent the only direct attribution. [1] (The conductus sets a rhymed Latin poem called a sequence to a repeated melody, much like a contemporary hymn.) These include Friedrich Ludwig (1910),[58] Heinrich Husmann (1940),[46] Hans Tischler (1950)[16] and Ethel Thurston (1970). In addition to their international tours, the Folk Choir has taken domestic tours of New England (1995), the Pacific Northwest (2006), Florida (2014), and the Heartland states (2017). Nevertheless, they did not know how to distinguish these notes from those which will be presented shortly. However, like Léonin, he is likely to have composed in every musical genre and style known to Notre Dame polyphony. Then a group of eight vocalists with no musical library, the group has now grown to more than sixty singers, instrumentalists, an associate director, and several student assistants. [28] In organum purum the tenor part was drawn out into long pedal points, while the upper part or duplum contrasted with it in a much freer rhythm, consisting of melisms (melismatic or several notes per syllable, compared to syllabic, a single note per syllable). Catch the Spirit explores sacred music from the African American and East African traditions. The Folk Choir serves the University of Notre Dame as one of the principal liturgical choirs, singing every Sunday during the academic year at the 11:45 A.M. liturgy in the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. He studied sacred music at Notre Dame, studied at the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music, and interned with the Sistine Chapel Choir. [16] The singing of organa fell into disuse by the mid thirteenth century. [16][17], Pérotin is considered to be the most important member of the Notre Dame school of polyphony, a group of composers working at or near the cathedral in Paris from about 1160 to 1250, creators of the ars antiqua style. [26][16] This early polyphonic organa was still firmly based on Gregorian chant, to which a second voice was added. Members of the choir come from a variety of academic disciplines, but are brought together by a shared love of music and a desire to practice, explore, and share their faith. [16] Pérotin is best known for his composition of both liturgical organa and non-liturgical conducti in which the voices move note on note. Facebook [f][12][13][1], There have been many speculative attempts to identify Pérotin with members of the Notre Dame administration,[g] but these have not generally been accepted. [33][34] This collection of music constitutes the earliest known record of polyphony to have the stability and circulation achieved earlier by monophonic Gregorian chant. This was the beginning of polyphonic European church music. The Notre Dame Folk Choir was founded in the late 1970s and quickly the choir moved far beyond the conventional definition of a “folk” group. We also provide music for dedication services, vespers services, memorial liturgies, penance services, weddings, ordinations, and a host of other celebrations which form a vital part of the fabric of worship on campus. People say Maître Leonin was the best composer of Organum (optimus organista), he composed the Great Organum Book for the gradual and antiphonary in order to prolong the divine service. [31] However, the manuscripts and fragments that survive[k] date well into the thirteenth century, meaning that they are preserved in a form notated by musicians working several generations following Léonin and Pérotin. Subsequent authors have attributed works on stylistic and chronological grounds. [59][40][1] Numbers refer to folios in the F manuscript of the Magnus liber. [1][42], Two styles emerged from the organum duplum, the "florid" and "discant" (discantus). The choir visited England during their 1992 and 2000 tours, and their 2008 tour took them to Scotland for the first time. During this uncertain time of isolation and separation the Folk Choir offers the uniting ministry of music through Catch the Spirit and its message of hope and connection. [54] Hans Tischler dates the revision of the Magnus Liber to around 1180/90. [30] These have been described as representing the peak of musical development of the time. Murphy is one of 60 members of the Notre Dame Folk Choir, a liturgical choir that performs in the Basilica during 11:45 Mass every Sunday. Notre Dame's Folk Choir released their new album of sacred music, "Catch the Spirit." [16] Between the accounts of Anonymous IV, the episcopal edicts and the arrangements in the Magnus liber, the key compositions appear to be corroborated and assigned to this period. This Magister Perotinus made the best quadrupla, such as Viderunt and Sederunt, with an abundance of striking musical embellishments [colores armonicae artis]; likewise, the noblest tripla, such as Alleluia, Posui adiutorium and [Alleluia], Nativitas etc. [20][36] With the addition of further parts, the compositions became known as motets, the most important form of polyphony of the period. [43] Anonymous IV described Léonin as optimus organista (the best composer of organa) but Pérotin, who revised the former's Magnus Liber Organi (Great Organum Book), as optimus discantor referring to his discant composition.,[12] In the original discant organum duplum, the second voice follows the cantus firmus, note on note but at an interval, usually a fourth above. The Notre Dame Folk Choir is made up of sixty vocalists and musicians from all levels and disciplines at the university. [16] It was during this time that the compositions of Pérotin first appeared, and a shift towards a more predominant discantus style. [55] Philip, also a canon there, held that title at the cathedral from 1218 till his death in 1236,[56] suggesting a possible later date for Pérotin's setting of the former's Beata viscera (ca. The surviving manuscripts from the thirteenth century together with the contemporaneous treatises on musical theory constitute the musical era of ars antiqua. Pérotin's dates of activity have been approximated from some late 12th century edicts (Statuta et donationes piae)[49] of the Bishop of Paris, Odo (Eudes de Sully)[q] (1196–1208), in 1198 and 1199. Twitter Phone (574) 631-7800 [29] In addition to two-part organa, this book contains three- and four-part compositions in four distinct forms: organa, clausulae, conducti and motets, and three distinct styles. A number of selections are scored for four-part choir, and each title contains music parts for organ, guitar, flute, violins, trumpet, and a rich ensemble of percussion instruments. [50] His preference was for elaborate music in its stead,[37][51] calling for performance in organa triplo vel quadruplo for the Responsory and Benedicamus and other settings. [1] Others believe this poem was written much earlier, and hence place Pérotin's death as no later than 1205,[16] the bishop's edicts implying that Pérotin's work was well before this. 309 Coleman-Morse Center, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA [47][48] The latter is placed in the Mass for the Circumcision in a 13th century French manuscript. In the organum style the upper voices are highly mobile over a tenor voice moving in long unmeasured notes. Pérotin's two Graduals for the Christmas season represent the highest point of his style, with a large scale tonal design in which the massive pedal points sustain the swings between consecutive harmonies, and an intricate interplay among the three upper voices. [t][37] Philip appears to have written a number of poems with the intention of them being set to music by Pérotin,[u] and with him is given credit for the development of the motet. [8] The name Perotinus, the Latin diminutive of Petrus, is assumed to be derived from the French name Pérotin, diminutive of Pierre. Pérotin, about whom little is known, most likely lived around the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th century and is presumed to have been French. [32][1] Of these, the best known works are his Viderunt omnes and Sederunt principes. Pérotin (fl. The University of Notre Dame Folk Choir, Notre Dame, Indiana. Notre Dame Folk Choir, Category: Artist, Top Tracks: Immaculate Mary, Be Still and Know That I Am God, The Lord's Prayer, Lead, Kindly Light, All Will Be Well, Monthly Listeners: 516, Where People Listen: Chicago, Quezon City, New York City, Los Angeles, Notre Dame The Notre Dame Folk Choir performs every Sunday of the academic year at the 11:45 a.m. liturgy in the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. [8] The diminutive was presumably a mark of respect bestowed by his colleagues. The Notre Dame Folk Choir, formed in 1980 and directed by Steven C. Warner, associate director of Campus Ministry, provides music for the Basilicas 11:45 a.m. Sunday Mass during the academic year. [11][40], Most of Pérotin's works are in polyphonic form of discant, including the quadrupla and tripla. 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